The Signatories to the World Anti-Doping Code recognise that effective Out-of-Competition Testing programmes are essential to the fight against doping in sport. They also recognise that effective Out-of-Competition Testing depends upon accurate and complete Athlete whereabouts information.
As a result, the Code requires Athletes in Registered Testing Pools: (a) to provide detailed information, on a quarterly basis, about their whereabouts in the following quarter; and (b) to be available at those whereabouts for Out-of-Competition Testing. If an Athlete in a Registered Testing Pool fails to meet those requirements three or more times in any 18-month period, he/she commits an anti-doping rule violation under Code Article 2.4, and is liable to be banned from sport for a period of between 12 and 24 months (or more if it is a repeat offence). See Code Articles 10.3.3 and 10.7.
It is International Federations and NADOs that bear primary responsibility for administering these whereabouts requirements, first by designating Athletes under their jurisdiction for inclusion in (respectively) international and national Registered Testing Pools, and then by collecting whereabouts information from those Athletes, using that information to test those Athletes Out-of-Competition, and also making that information available to other ADOs with Testing jurisdiction over those Athletes, so that they can test them Out-of-Competition as well.
International Federations and NADOs then also have primary results management responsibility when Athletes in their respective Registered Testing Pools fail to file proper whereabouts information (Filing Failures) or are not present where they said they would be for Testing purposes (Missed Tests). (See generally IST clauses 11.7.1 and 11.7.3)
Other parties also have responsibilities in relation to whereabouts. National Federations have a specific obligation to assist in obtaining whereabouts information from Athletes under their jurisdiction, and both International Federations and NADOs may delegate further whereabouts responsibilities to them. (IST clauses 11.7.2, 11.7.4, 11.7.5)
Meanwhile, any Anti-Doping Organisation that seeks to collect a Sample from an Athlete using his/her whereabouts information may only declare a Missed Test on that Athlete if it has met the requirements of IST clause 11.4.3, including making a reasonable attempt to find the Athlete at his declared whereabouts. (IST clause 11.6.3)
The relevant principles are set out in Articles 2.4, 5.1.1, 10.3.3 and 14.3 of the Code and the specific whereabouts requirements are detailed in Section 11 of the International Standard for Testing. There is also significant guidance as to the implementation of these requirements set out in the comments to the relevant provisions of the International Standard for Testing.